Archive for the ‘History’ Category

What Price Life?

Thursday, November 29th, 2018

Part One

“Insulin is my gift to mankind” – Frederick Banting

A Quick Quiz

Question 1: Name a chronic disease requiring medication, which, if not taken every day, guarantees death within two weeks.
Answer: Type 1 Diabetes.

Question 2: Name the medication.
Answer: Insulin.

Question 3: What is the monthly cost of insulin for a Type 1 diabetic?
Answer: As we shall see, that depends.

Question 4: If Type 1 diabetics cannot afford the cost of insulin, without which they will surely die, what should they do?
Answer: This is happening at this moment, and people are dying.  In these two blog posts we’ll examine why and what can be done about it. But we need to first posit some truths about diabetes, and then describe how, in 1922, Canadian doctor Frederick Banting made the ground-breaking discovery that allowed Type 1 diabetics, for the first time in history, to live.

Ten Fast Facts

  1. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows the body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food we eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps blood sugar levels from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). Type 1 diabetics, T1Ds, can no longer produce insulin. They have none of it. Although older adults can also contract Type 1 diabetes, it usually strikes children and young adults. Without insulin, whether old or young, they die.
  2. There are about 1.3 million T1Ds in the U.S. They comprise one half of one percent of the population. Currently, there is no cure for any of them. Without insulin, they will die.
  3. There are about 29 million Type 2 diabetics. T2Ds still make some insulin. In most, lifestyle changes will improve their health, sometimes to the point where they will no longer require insulin or any other medical prescriptions. Some will become insulin-dependent, and without it, they face life-changing complications.
  4. Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness.
  5. Diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic amputation.
  6. Diabetes is a leading cause of heart attack and stroke.
  7. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure.
  8. Complications from diabetes sometimes cause workplace injuries and often exacerbate the severity and length of recovery.
  9. In 2017, the nation’s total direct medical costs due to diabetes were $237 billion. Average medical expenses for diabetics were 2.3 times higher than for non-diabetics. The extent to which diabetes added to workers’ compensation medical costs is unknown.
  10. Based on information found on death certificates, diabetes was the 7th leading cause of death in the United States in 2015, with 79,535 death certificates listing it as the underlying cause of death, and 252,806 listing diabetes as an underlying or contributing cause of death. However, diabetes is underreported as a cause of death; studies have found that only about 35% to 40% of people with diabetes who died had diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate and only 10% to 15% had it listed as the underlying cause of death. An example of best practice would be, “Death caused by infection contracted from hemodialysis due to kidney failure, a complication of the patient’s diabetes.”

Banting and Insulin

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Frederick Banting is perhaps Canada’s greatest hero. Born in 1891, he graduated medical school with a surgical degree in 1915 and found himself in a French trench by the end of 1917. In December of that year, he was wounded during the Battle of Cambrai, the first great tank battle in history. He remained on the battlefield for 16 hours tending to other wounded soldiers until he had to be ordered to the rear to have his own wounds treated. For this action he won the British Military Cross, akin to America’s Silver Star. After returning to Canada, he continued his studies and, in 1920, secured a part time teaching post at Western Ontario University. While there, he began studying insulin Why? Serendipity. Someone had asked him to give a talk on the workings of the pancreas.

Banting became interested – and then obsessed – with trying to come up with a way to get insulin to people who couldn’t make any of their own. In November 1921, he hit on the idea of extracting insulin from fetal pancreases of cows and pigs. He discussed the approach with J. R. R. MacLeod, Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto. MacLeod thought Banting’s idea was doomed to failure, but he allowed him to use his lab facilities while he was on a golfing holiday in Scotland. He also loaned him two assistants, Dr. Charles Best and biochemist James Collip. Collip devised a method to purify the insulin Banting and Best obtained from the fetal pancreases.

To MacLeod’s surprise, Banting’s procedure worked, and in 1922 Banting and Best successfully treated the daughter of US Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes.

In 1923, one year later, Banting, at the age of 32, won the Nobel Prize, which, to his disgust, he had to share with MacLeod. To this day, Frederick Banting is the youngest person ever to win the Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

His discovery could have made Banting mind-numbingly rich, but he would have none of that. Along with Best and Collip, Banting patented his method and then the three of them sold the patent to the University of Toronto for the princely sum of $3.00. When asked why he didn’t cash in on his discovery, Banting said, “Insulin is my gift to mankind.” With Banting’s blessing, the University licensed insulin’s manufacturing to drug companies, royalty free. If drug companies didn’t have to pay royalties, Banting thought they would keep the price of insulin low.

And they did. For decades.

But patents expire, and capitalism being what it is, people get greedy, and greed is why we have no generic, low-cost insulin today and why, over the past 20 years, insulin prices have risen anywhere from 800% to 1,157%, depending on the variety and brand. It’s why, lacking health insurance, some Type 1 diabetics have recently been driven to ration their precious insulin. Some of them have died.

More about all that in Part Two.

 

 

 

On Empathy And Thoughtful Leadership

Thursday, May 10th, 2018

In his May 1 column for Risk & Insurance, Roberto Ceniceros, evoking the memory of Abraham Lincoln, describes and recommends a leadership style radically different from that of the tweet-driven current occupant of 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.

Like Mr. Trump, Lincoln had quite a temper. However, over the course of his life he came to recognize it as a weakness. In many cases, when someone caused his blood to boil, which happened frequently during the Civil War, rather than immediately lashing out, he would often withdraw and write a letter to the offending party detailing in stark terms his great disappointment. He would then put the letter in a desk drawer and more often than not never send it. This mental health exercise would calm him and allow him to deal with the issue in a more thoughtful manner.

in his column, Mr. Ceniceros suggests Lincoln’s method defines a highly self-aware and empathic person. He writes that this behavioral characteristic was shared by four other historical figures described in “Forged in Crisis: The Power of Courageous Leadership in Turbulent Times,” written by Harvard Business School historian Nancy Koehn.

As described by Mr. Ceniceros, Keohn’s book:

…includes the story of Ernest Shackleton, hailed in previous business-management books for leading his shipwrecked and isolated crew off Antarctic ice flows. The other biographies feature abolitionist Frederick Douglass; Dietrich Bonhoeffer, imprisoned by the Gestapo and murdered for opposing the Third Reich; and scientist and author Rachel Carson, who raced against cancer to finish her manuscript on the dangers of mass pesticide use.

All five of these courageous people overcame nearly impossible challenges, but Shackleton, who simply refused to let anyone under his commend die on their perilous journey, and Lincoln, who simply refused to let the Union die on his watch, embody an empathy of heroic proportion.

Another person who should be included in this group is Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States. Grant was a great leader, but a total disaster as an administrator, primarily because of his trustful nature. His presidency is historically noted for profound corruption and scandals. In private life he failed miserably, both before the war and after it. In 1884, after his final business venture left him penniless, he contracted terminal cancer. His friend, Mark Twain, suggested Grant write his autobiography, which Twain would publish, giving Grant extremely favorable royalties (30%). Faced with impending death, Grant simply refused to die and leave his family in abject poverty. He raced to complete the Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant, an autobiography Twain described this way:

I had been comparing the memoirs with Caesar‘s Commentaries. …I was able to say in all sincerity, that the same high merits distinguished both books—clarity of statement, directness, simplicity, unpretentiousness, manifest truthfulness, fairness and justice toward friend and foe alike, soldierly candor and frankness, and soldierly avoidance of flowery speech. I placed the two books side by side upon the same high level, and I still think that they belonged there.

Grant died five days after finishing the book. His heirs received royalties of about $450,000, which, in today’s currency, comes to about $12 million.

 

 

Lincoln, with his letters, Shackleton, his loyalty, and Grant, with an indomitable will to provide for his family, personify dedication to others on an heroic scale. Roberto Ceniceros’s column is a poignant reminder that character matters, that a forceful personality can be used for good or ill, that humility is the foundation of empathy.

Donald Trump should start writing letters.

Automation Designed To Keep People Safe Can Produce The Opposite Result Through No Fault Of Its Own

Monday, September 18th, 2017

A fascinating article in today’s Daily Alert from the Harvard Business Review describes how our dependence on automation can erode cognitive ability to respond to emergencies.

In “The Tragic Crash of Flight AF447 Shows the Unlikely but Catastrophic Consequences of Automation,” authors Nick Oliver, Thomas Calvard and Kristina Potocnik, professors and researchers at the University of Edinburgh Business School, report on their analysis of the horrific crash of Air France flight 447 in 2009. Their research, recently published in Organizational Science, describes in riveting detail the series of preventable cascading events that led to the deaths of all 228 passengers and crew.

Although the crash of AF447 is a transportation tragedy, it also can serve as a stark reminder that employees who depend on technology, especially technology that controls dangerous work, say self-driving 18-wheel trucks, for example, need a lot of training to take the right steps when technology reacts to emergencies. Without that training, the authors contend, the cognitive ability to take manual control and successfully deal with the emergency is problematic at best.

The authors provide an example:

Imagine having to do some moderately complex arithmetic. Most of us could do this in our heads if we had to, but because we typically rely on technology like calculators and spreadsheets to do this, it might take us a while to call up the relevant mental processes and do it on our own. What if you were asked, without warning, to do this under stressful and time-critical conditions? The risk of error would be considerable.

This was the challenge that the crew of AF447 faced. But they also had to deal with certain “automation surprises,” such as technology behaving in ways that they did not understand or expect.

The point here is the technology offering up the “automation surprises” was doing exactly what it was programmed to do. The technology did not fail; the pilots, all three of them, failed in their response to the “surprises.”

We are now at the beginning of a monumental shift in the way work (and play) is done. The natural gravitational movement of artificial intelligence assuming more and more control in our daily lives is unstoppable. Think of how it has brought tremendous improvements in air safety. To prove that, consider this astounding statistic: In 2016 the accident rate for major jets was just one major accident for every 2.56 million flights. But this bubble of safety can breed terrible complacency. How humanity deals with and prepares for the rude “automation surprises” that will surely come along on the way to the future should be a critical component in the thinking of organizational leaders and safety professionals.

 

Thanksgiving And Freedom From Want

Tuesday, November 22nd, 2016

During his 1941 State of the Union address, Franklin Roosevelt articulated what he considered humanity’s four essential freedoms: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Fear and Freedom from Want. In American recent history those freedoms have been attacked in different ways and in different degrees. At this moment we are a hurting country in many respects.

But right around the corner comes Thanksgiving, my favorite holiday. A holiday on which families come together, put aside their petty disagreements and bond once again with love. No one tries to sell Thanksgiving paraphernalia, except maybe a recently sacrificed turkey. And for a few hours the Christmas shopping season that kicked off around Labor Day doesn’t exist.

Following Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, American artist Norman Rockwell set out to depict them on canvas. Rockwell was a humble man; he called himself an “Illustrator,” not an artist. Didn’t think he was good enough for that.

On 3 March 1942, his Freedom From Want graced the cover of The Saturday Evening Post magazine. He decided the best way to portray Freedom From Want was through a family’s Thanksgiving dinner. His painting, as well as the three other Freedom covers he painted for The Saturday Evening Post that year, has become iconic.

freedom-from-want

We whose job it is to push the workers’ compensation rock up the Sisyphean mountain, all the while trying our best to help men and women who have had their lives interrupted by workplace injury or illness, have taken it on the chin lately. We’re not alone in that, of course.  So many of our fellow citizens are bruised also. Perhaps we, and all Americans, should put that aside and take a moment to ponder Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms and Rockwell’s sometimes loving, sometimes searing, portrait of them and recommit ourselves to the existential exceptionalism that is the American Dream. Perhaps we should grasp tightly the good feelings that ooze out of Thanksgiving and in that moment dedicate ourselves to helping not only those who place their trust in our professional competence but also all who are momentarily lost and searching for better lives for themselves and their loved ones.

Happy Thanksgiving.

What life was like for U.S. workers in 1915

Wednesday, February 24th, 2016

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To commemorate its centennial, editors at the Monthly Labor Review have produced an excellent and fascinating report on The life of American workers in 1915 and the progress we have seen in the workplace since then. We think it’s worth your time to check it out!

The context of the era is first established with a list of news events that were occurring at the time: a bill to give women the right to vote was rejected; labor leader Joe Hill was charged with murder, a charge that would lead to his execution; Alexander Graham Bell made his famous call to Thomas Watson in San Francisco, Typhoid Mary was arrested, Einstein formulated his theory of general relativity -these and several other key events shaped the era.

The report goes on to discuss the demographics of the day and paint a portrait of daily life with many interesting facts about daily life ranging from where and how people lived (mortgages typically ranged from 5 to 7 years, but required 40-50% down) to how they commuted to work each day (streetcar, by foot or by horse) , what they typically ate for breakfast (corn flakes and puffed wheat cereals), what they wore for work clothing, how many hours they worked, what an average worker was paid ($687 a year), how they spent their leisure time, and more. It’s a fascinating and well-researched historical document.

For our purposes, we were most interested in work conditions and safety. Here’s one excerpt:

Although working in mines was notoriously dangerous, mill work could also be quite hazardous. BLS reported about 23,000 industrial deaths in 1913 among a workforce of 38 million, equivalent to a rate of 61 deaths per 100,000 workers. In contrast, the most recent data on overall occupational fatalities show a rate of 3.3 deaths per 100,000 workers. Regarding on-the-job safety, Green notes, “There was virtually no regulation, no insurance, and no company fear of a lawsuit when someone was injured or killed.” Frances Perkins, who went on to become the first Secretary of Labor (1933–45), lobbied for better working conditions and hours in 1910 as head of the New York Consumers League. After witnessing the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which caused the death of 146 mainly young, immigrant female garment workers in New York’s Greenwich Village, Perkins left her job to become the head of the Committee on Public Safety, where she became an even stronger advocate for workplace safety. From 1911 to 1913, the New York State legislature passed 60 new safety laws recommended by the committee. Workplaces have become safer, and technology has been used in place of workers for some especially dangerous tasks.

In addition to this excellent article, there are a few noteworthy accompanying reports and articles in the sidebar, as well. Occupational changes during the 20th century charts how farmers, craftsmen, laborers and private household workers gave way to professional, managerial and service workers over the course of the century. Labor law highlights, 1915–2015 runs through legislation and trends that improved the worker’s lot – ranging from legislation that regulated child labor to laws prohibiting discriminatory practices for women and minorities. Two key legal initiatives were the introduction and adoption of workers compensation laws and workplace safety initiatives being legislated in 1970 with the passage of the birth of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).

 Theodore Roosevelt, arguing in favor of workers’ compensation (then known as workmen’s compensation) laws in 1913, offered the story of an injured worker that summed up the legal recourse available for workplace injuries at the time. A woman’s arm was ripped off by the uncovered gears of a grinding machine. She had complained earlier to her employer that state law required the gears be covered. Her employer responded that she could either do her job or leave. Under the prevailing common-law rules of negligence, because she continued working she had assumed the risk of the dangerous condition and was not entitled to compensation for her injury.

As the example illustrates, common-law negligence was not ideal for handling workplace injuries. Workers who noticed hazards could either “assume the risk” and continue working, or leave work; they were powerless to change the condition. Employers were at risk as well: they were vulnerable to negligence suits that could yield large, unanticipated awards for injured workers. Workers’ compensation, where employers insure against the cost of workplace injuries and workers have defined benefits in the case of injury, significantly reduced the risk for both parties.

Our brief excepts don’t do these report justice. Kudos to all the people who produced these great documents and congratulations on 100 years of reporting on the American workplace!

Peter Rousmaniere’s Seismic Shifts in Workers’ Comp: A Thought-Provoking Call To Arms

Monday, February 23rd, 2015

In the mid-1980s, workers’ compensation underwent a management revolution. Until then, employers bought insurance policies, and when injuries occurred passed the baton to their carriers. Then they went back to making widgets trusting that the carriers would take care of everything.

That didn’t work out so well, and costs took a rocket ride to the moon. Across America, employers looked for help. Why would injured workers remain out of work long after it was medically necessary for them to do so. The answer, as we all know, was found in the mirror. Employers, themselves, were the key to getting injured workers back into the bosom of the workplace, but they’d never been taught how to do that. Didn’t know it was their job.

Thus was the workers’ comp management consulting industry born. My company, Lynch Ryan, was first out of the gate. We were the Pathfinders, and Peter Rousmaniere was Employee Number 3 in what was to become a 55 person firm. Peter – Groton School, Harvard BA, Harvard MBA – wanted to join us because he was looking for a challenge. I wanted Peter to join us because he was really smart, and his brain worked like nobody’s I’d ever met. Peter thought “outside the box” before there was an outside the box.

Peter still thinks like nobody else, and today Work Comp Central has published his Seismic Shifts: An Essential Guide for Practitioners and CEOs in Workers’ Comp, subtitled, How Technology and Demographics Will Impact Workers’ Comp From Today Through 2022. This self-funded, year-long venture looks out into the future and envisions another revolution, one that we ignore at our peril.

In Seismic Shifts, Rousmaniere catalogues the nearly unnoticed, but drumbeatingly steady, changes in workers’ compensation since the early 1990s. He shows that since 1991 lost time injuries have declined by 60% and projects that by 2022 there will be a further decline of at least another 35%. He is perplexed about how the insurance industry has missed this decline in injuries and claims, what he calls ‘the elephant in the room,” and suggests that it has done so because for more than a decade it has been obsessively fixated on medical costs, an observation with which I agree. Rousmaniere contends that the insurance industry does not understand how this has happened or why.

His thesis is that this sea change, this seismic shift, is the result of employer improvements in safety engineering, information technology, telematics, robotic design, predictive modelling analytics and the continuous yearning for enhanced productivity. And most important, this natural gravitational movement will continue inexorably. Further, he believes that the workers’ compensation insurance industry has not considered where all of this will lead, how it can be part of and optimize this transformational movement and what kind of workforce it will need to take advantage of this new paradigm.

In Rousmaniere’s view, workers’ compensation practitioners, as well as occupants of the C-Suite, would be well-advised to understand what’s happening and embrace, rather than resist, these evolutionary developments. In his mind, the embracers will succeed and control the future; the resisters will be swept away. It’s as simple as that. He describes, as example, the profound employer movement toward total absence management, rather than merely occupational absence. The move toward total absence management is gathering steam at larger employers, and workers’ comp insurers don’t know what to do about that. Neither do they have a plan for coping with the “opt out” phenomenon. First Texas, then Oklahoma, and just last Friday legislators in Tennessee filed opt-out legislation built on the Oklahoma model. This is becoming a trend.

But the workers’ compensation industry has never distinguished itself in the race to the future. It will be interesting, indeed, to see if Rousmaniere’s clarion call is even acknowledged by today’s potentates. To help it along Work Comp Central is hosting a 4-part webinar series during which Peter will lay out his thesis and try to persuade others in the workers’ comp community to join him in his effort to drag the industry kicking and screaming into the future. Check with Work Comp Central for dates of the Webinars.

Seismic Shifts is an important work, one deserving of your attention and consideration.

Bagpiper’s Fungus, Cheesewasher’s Lung & other obsolete occupational maladies

Friday, March 22nd, 2013

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Did you ever hear of rose gardener’s disease, nun’s chastity of fiddler’s neck?
All apparent names for occupational maladies of yesteryear. Watch this fascinating short video clip charting 10 strange occupational hazards.
Some of these conditions are associated with professions that are confined to the dustbins of history – becoming a loblolly boy isn’t a career path for young boys anymore. And some of these conditions may still exist, they are likely just rebranded. Others may have just adapted to modern tastes – cheesemaker’s lung may be largely a hazard of the past, but unfortunately, Popcorn Lung is not.

Lessons from Ernest Shackleton’s Medical Kit

Tuesday, October 2nd, 2012
“Men wanted for hazardous journey. Low wages, bitter cold, long hours of complete darkness. Safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in event of success.”

That is the ad that was allegedly posted to attract crew to Sir Ernest Shackelton’s Arctic Expedition on the Nimrod in 1907-09. There’s been a lot written about this adventure to one of the then-most remote corners of the earth. It is still among the most remote wilderness locations today – contemporary workers who agree to stint at Antarctic bases have to prepare for a long haul since some locations only afford a two to three month window when bases are reachable.
A few years ago, when Gavin Francis accepted the position as a medical doctor ‘wintering’ at Halley Base, a profoundly isolated research station on the Caird Coast of Antarctica, he had to plan accordingly since the base is unreachable for ten months of the year. He’s written a pretty fascinating article in Granta magazine comparing the preparations he took in terms of supplying a medical kit with the list of supplies in Shackleton’s Medical Kit.

“In the well-stocked polar section of the little base library I unearthed the packing list for Shackleton’s medical kit – the drugs and dressings he took on the sledge trips of his Nimrod Expedition of 1907, the one that turned back only ninety-seven miles from the South Pole. It added up to a weight of about three kilos, less than a sixth of the modern kit, and to my technomedical mind read more like a witch’s grimoire than the best medical advice of just a century ago.”

It’s a pretty fascinating read, one that we think might tickle the fancy of occupational physicians. We enjoyed the author’s observations about how the practice of medicine has changed, particularly in regards to the challenges of caring for a workforce in a remote location.
Chances are, no matter how remote your workplace, planning for employee health and safety program doesn’t have quite the same extremes in parameters. But one thing remains true: advance planning can still mean the difference between life and death; knowing how to respond quickly can be the difference between a relatively minor event and a life-changing tragedy.
What’s the status of your workplace first aid kit?
In Fundamentals of a Workplace First-Aid Program (PDF), OSHA suggests:

“Employers should make an effort to obtain estimates of EMS response times for all permanent and temporary locations and for all times of the day and night at which they have workers on duty, and they should use that information when planning their first-aid program. When developing a workplace first-aid program, consultation
with the local fire and rescue service or emergency medical professionals may be helpful for response time information and other program issues.”

The booklet outlines OSHA Requirements, recommended First-Aid Supplies, including Automated External Defibrillators, guidance on First-Aid Courses and Elements of a First-Aid Training Program. In addition to evaluating their own organization’s risk factors, employers should be aware of any state laws governing workplace first aid.
ANSI/ISEA Z308.1-2009 is the current minimum performance requirements for first aid kits and their supplies that are intended for use in various work environments. You can purchase these through the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or the International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA). If you want to save a few dollars, you may be able to find a free copy, such as the one we found minimum contents list from the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry.
Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) programs are an increasingly common component in a workplace health and safety program to address sudden cardiac arrest. These programs require some medical guidance and training to put in place.
Arguably, one of the most parts of your emergency planning should be to prepare your employees and your supervisors about what to do in the case of a medical emergency. Put your policies and protocols writing and communicate them to your employees frequently. Don’t forget to include solitary and remote workers in your emergency planning.

Labor Day Roundup: Here’s to the Workers

Tuesday, September 4th, 2012

As a belated tribute to Labor Day, we offer a smorgasbord of items about work, worker safety, and some of our favorite tributes to workers.
Celebrating the American Worker
America at Work – Alan Taylor compiles superlative photo essays for The Atlantic’s In Focus series. This collection of images from the recent Recession and its years of uncertainty — of men and women both at work and out of work in the United States.
Earl Dotter, Photojournalist – A remarkable portfolio of work documenting American workers. In the author’s words:
“For more than thirty five years the camera had enabled me to do meaningful work. Starting with Appalachian coal miners, and continuing through the years over a broad array of occupations in all regions of the country, I have observed and documented the working lives of Americans. Standing behind the lens, I have celebrated their accomplishments. I seek out those who are taking steps to improve their lives and their effectiveness at work, and use the camera to engage them by giving testimony to their achievements. The images that result tell of the satisfactions their work brings as well as its everyday challenges.”
Lost Labor – For more than 20 years, visual artist Raymon Elozua has been assembling a vast collection of company histories, pamphlets, and technical brochures that document America’s industrial history. This site features 155 photos from that collection – images of factories, machinery, and laborers hard at work. Many of the jobs depicted have faded into history. The artist grew up in the South Side of Chicago in the shadow of the giant steel mills and factories. His dad worked at U.S. Steel and his first job was at U.S. Steel, triggering a life long interest in everything about these industrial behemoths, from the architecture to the people who worked the jobs within. His interest in documenting this bygone era of American working life was sparked by the demise of the South Works industries.
Worker Safety
Hard Labor – The Center for Public Integrity says: “Each year, some 4,500 American workers die on the job and 50,000 perish from occupational diseases. Millions more are hurt and sickened at workplaces, and many others are cheated of wages and abused. In the coming months the Center for Public Integrity will publish, under the banner Hard Labor, stories exploring threats to workers — and the corporate and regulatory factors that endanger them.”
In particular, we point you to two recent stories:
Fishing deaths mount, but government slow to cast safety net for deadliest industry
Kentucky death case: Another black eye for state workplace safety enforcement
The Best Reporting on Worker Safety – ProPublica compiled “12 pieces of great reporting on workplace safety: from slaughterhouse diseases to lax regulatory oversight and deadly vats of chocolate.”
Workers in Popular Culture

From our archives

When it Comes to Safety, This is Just Ducky…

Monday, May 14th, 2012

We begin the week on a somewhat bizarre note, as Donald Duck does safety in this vintage 1959 cartoon clip entitled “How to Have an Accident at Work.” When it comes to safety, Donald is everyone’s nightmare worker. For those of us in the workers comp field, this may seem more horror film than cartoon, but Donald, unlike ordinary workers, is literally indestructible.

This clip was a sequel to “How to Have an Accident in the Home”